Studying as part of Culture?

Studying persist for higher education. As higher education is ways to alleviate wealth and social status, moreover fulfill the society’s mindset perspective of ‘educated people’. School as education institution had been acknowledged, dated back in 16th centuries – yet, as not as formalized and structured as today.

English Entrance Exam of one of China's State University

English Entrance Exam of one of China’s State University

But what if study makes up become a ‘Robot’? Commonly, students who took similar test being interviewed and stated that they studied up to 16 hours per day, which the rest of hours used for sleep. It is not study to understand, yet to memorize.                                 Our school and education systems have helped to creates robots to similar quality of filling in the blank. As of why today’s education system is more likely a Roulette to ensure good carrier and life’s quality; because of population explosion, rendering competition being tightened by certain requirements via criteria – other than education background other activities are also required to be involved in job seeking, for example. It was not as valuable as education back then which ensure at least the welfare of educated person.

Well, what do you think? Should it be reformed or stay as it is, or imbued with innovations?

 

Jimmy Lie Atipa Junior (016201200007)

 

Better to be a Carrier Woman or Housewife or Both?

Gender equality,  as what it had been represented in general,  defines about enjoying equal treatment and empowerment towards both women and men in terms of rights, benefits, opportunities and obligations on their diverse roles in society. It means that both women and men are getting equal participation in decision-making, equal ability for exercising their human rights, equal access to control resources and the benefits of development and equal opportunities in employment and other aspects of their livelihoods. Based on the reports, the cause for the world’s majority poverty are coming from women, which there is around 70% of the people who lives in an extreme poverty, on less than US$1 a day, are mostly coming from girls and women. Another reason why gender equality should have to be concerned more, especially for women, is coming from political aspect about the rights to vote. For instance is coming from Saudi Arabia, where women are not given their rights to vote. The same is happened from USA right wing commentators who said that women should never have been given the right to vote. That is why this is as a big challenge to expand the application of gender equality to all women in the world

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Gender issues will appear in a condition where the measure of a specific gender is less than another gender in certain places (for instance is the population of women in a certain area lesser than population of men), or a situation where there is a hierarchy in the role that each gender should have to take because of a custom in that place (this case is mostly coming from rural areas). Thus these kinds of conditions make women get less access than men regarding to productive resources, services and opportunities, such as like land, livestock, financial services and education. And I already had this kind of experience related to the second factor about gender equality where there is hierarchy within this gender roles, especially in Bataknese culture. When I went to my village and all the parents were talking about how their children (especially their daughters) had been succeed on their educations, suddenly a man that lives on this village said, “I do not think that women should have to be given higher education, since in the end they will always appear in the kitchen and should have to be good housewife” I was getting upset after I heard what he said, however on second thought, I think part of what he said is true, that is a good thing if we got higher education and be as a woman who has good carrier, but when we already get married and all of those house work being done by our own husband, it feels like it is kinda weird for me, and of course for the society around us (mainly in Batak culture), they will think that we as women are too ambitious with what we want for our carrier while on the same time we already failed as the “real women” regarding to our roles in society (that still used “old-fashioned” style, and Batak culture is one of these society).

So, what do you think? We should have to follow gender roles in this modern society like what is happened today,

or we should have to follow what society so they will see us as a “good women”

or we can do both to balance it??

 

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Nurhayati Pakpahan

(016201200036)

Whether the date should always be the man who pays? Culture or Grip?

Assalamualaikum, Wr. Wb

Good Morning

At the first I would like to begin this article to define a flashback about dating approach. Why a relationship has to start from the approach? Yet if family, friends and relatives to bless, the relationship that just 2 weeks, can be realized marriage. The approach is one way to study and learn something. The signs that are made through the attitudes and behavior shows the mindset of the individual. Not all men do this. There is also a man who is always close to another human due to personal extrovert and care for the environment.

But for men, There are something I look carefully:
1. Men are creatures that have a clear purpose.
2. Men will act when they do not have a sense of curiosity
3. Men will not approach if there is no cause.

Not all beautiful women preferred by men. Because the beautiful of women is relative (according to taste) Men are more likely to approach women that attractive, cheerful, and loving. But there is something that is not expected, that men like to see women who are bold and dominating (center of attention). Of course this is because of the professional and brilliant woman.

Is it true that modern in 2013-2014 man looks flabby?
I regret to say Yes, they look flabby (The scope of the metropolis). And many things that cause men like it (especially the social factor).
Approach and dating (the study of the marker and marked), when you (women) began to relate to a person (male) shortly afterwards the man writes a regular prefix “What are you doing?” Then followed, “Do you have any events this week?”

Two options to be done by a woman are:
1 Reject smoothly (“I have an event”), it is a sign of no interest.
2 Receive (“I have no events, so what?), it iss a sign of trying to establish a relationship.

The phenomenon above is that if the man who dared to ask first. I would say it is not wrong if the woman who took first. There is absolutely no wrong. For someone who is not yet experienced either men or women, they will ask first to those who are considered to have experienced.
Including questions that I mentioned: “I invited her to movie, that I should pay him for the movie ticket?” (Male)

Answer options:
1. The experience of answering “The girl thinks, he is the guy who pays that the care man. If you really care about her, let’s pay.”
2. The experience of answering “No need. If you do not have enough money why should you pay? Let alone pay each”
3. The experienced of answering “You can adjust it by yourself. Honest, If indeed you cannot afford to pay why should impose? If I am, it is better to be honest from the beginning.”

I say with regret, culture number 1 is no longer called habit but that referred to the rule (grip) which is applied by women. Not only in Jakarta, Indonesia but throughout the world.

Then basically, Women NOT ONLY like number 1, but also THERE ARE women who tends to pick number 3.
Honesty, a relationship that begins with honesty better than coercion (lies). Despite the fact that WOMEN DO NOT like being lied to (tricked) Honesty is a painful thing. To accept or not accept these signs will be your decision later.

In conclusion, do not push yourself, if you cannot, better to say the truth.
Moreover, most women are not happy if they see a man depressed, even more depressed because of her. But love is a variety of shapes and I cannot generalize love. You are play (players) in your own love story.

by, M. Alifan Febrian – 0162012001305-kesalahan-cowok-saat-kencan-pertama

“She is so shallow!” : Devaluing a woman’s work.

Society looks like it is on a mission to delegitimize every single platform in which women can express themselves, and it doesn’t look like it’s going to stop anytime soon, so grab your popcorns because this post is about to get really, really angry.

If I tell you to stop and think of the ONE thing that women have more say than men, what will you come up with?

Go on, I’ll give you 30 seconds.

Did you get it?

You probably came up with a couple (maybe not too much), but in this particular post, I’m going to ramble about the fashion industry.

VOGUE

Ta – da.

Although more recently a lot of men have become more and more conscious of what they are wearing, the art of fashion remain something that is inherently female.  For centuries, women have created trends and set them on society. From long and puffy dresses with ruffles to crop tees and shorts, women have long been able to make art out of pieces of cloth. The same is true with makeup, women are using their own bodies as platforms of expressing art, and they have essentially perfected the art of eyeliner.

 

ALIS

I will never achieve this level of dexterity.

Yet, what do we say to people who are trendy and wear makeup?

We call them ‘shallow’.

If they happen to be guys, we call them ‘girly’. And also ‘shallow’.

Why is it that although we call ourselves feminists, although we believe in the equality of the genders, we criticize probably the one and only platform in which the works of a woman can be as legitimate, even more than, that of a man?

Why is something that is a generally acceptable form of expression for women labeled as ‘vain’?

Well, remember when I said sexism against women exists in almost every level of society? Even amongst women? This is something that has been so internalized that if you don’t know what to look out for, you wouldn’t even know it’s there.

The dismissal of fashion as something that is trivial is a very, very, very subtle form of sexism. And yet it is still sexism. Women have few enough forms of expression as it is, and with fashion, women are allowed an uncharacteristic amount of freedom.

Which is of course why our patriarchal society must devalue it. Because it is a ‘woman’s art form’.

Yes, I know that a lot of guys are into fashion as well, and more to those guys. You go, boys. Rock those chino pants. However, like it or not, being stylish is something that is very primarily female, and this is why society treats it as trivial.

Because society treats women as trivial.

What makes me really sad is that labeling stylish women (and men) as ‘superficial’ is mostly done by fellow women. I cannot even begin to describe how internalized sexism has become that women judge other women (and some men) according to standards that are set by our misogynistic society.

GOSIP

(There is also the silly, silly, and almost idiotic notion that women dress up stylishly for men to see, for male approval. This is not true for a lot of women. Women dress up to express themselves, not to grab men’s attention. Not to be hit on while walking down the street because she is wearing a cute summer dress, and ultimately, NOT TO BE RAPED BECAUSE HER SHORT SKIRT WAS ‘ASKING FOR IT’.)

So the next time you see someone with full on makeup wearing a fancy little black dress, stop muttering “That person is so shallow” under your breath. The next time you see someone maybe wearing hoop earrings and a mismatched cardigan, stop that sniggering. The next time a person, man or woman, tells you “I really want to be good at applying eyeliner”, don’t roll your eyes, because a person should not be discouraged from expressing his/herself, because no form of art should be devalued just because it is primarily female.

Anyways, down with the patriarchy.

Now, what did you say about me being an angry feminist again?

Cynthia Natalia Ongga – 016201200122

Futurism in Changsha, China

The future is a time after the present. It has been becoming a topic of religion, philosophy, and science. The futurism in art began to be popular in the twentieth century where the medium of art such as painting, theater, sculpture, music, poetry, architecture, and gastronomy were being explored. Futurism was then expanded to cover other artistic coverage and finally included industrial textile, design, and architecture.

In Changsha, China, there appeared an ambitious cultural complex introduced by Zaha Hadid Architects, an international architecture and design firm from London. It brought a new concept of building which put the concern more on extreme sinuous curves that radiate from each of the three independent structures and hooks them to a pedestrianized landscape, forming what they hope to be a global destination for theater and art.

Posted by: Ratna Ningrum Kus P.

Untitled

culturaldiversity 1

Youth

Youth is a young role model

Youth is someone who has a social responsibility

Youth is the one who can bring peace and balance in this multiculturalism

 

The simple – what I like to call – poem above is shortly described the messsage of this post. The other posts highlighted about the current issue that is completely hot to be discussed, especially in this multiculturalism world and globalized era. There are a religion or conflict issue, underdevelopment of one region issue, gender inequality, and more. However, these issues will always remain the same if there is no action from us. Youth, as a young role model, has the responsibility to solve these issues in order to bring balance, peace, equality, unity, and betterment in this diversity. Thus, this has become one of our responsibilities. Let’s hand in hand to make this is happening in the future so we can give the legacy to the next generation!

The 1960s Counterculture: Hippies Movement

 

In the beginning of 1960s, the counterculture movement emerged in San Fransisco, USA. This movement well known as hippies movement. The terms hippie refer to word “hipster” which means the unusual movement. This movement emerged as a protest by teenagers towards a conservative culture at that time. They started to reject the old culture which their parents held in a long time. They go out from home, create a commune, consumed LSD and marijuana and having sex. This movement upheld liberal value and they think that the conservative culture is no longer fit with the ages.  1960s counterculture produced much music, literature and popular art which related to their values. The characteristic of this movement was long hair, full color shirt, marijuana and live nomad. The hippies movement comes up with a very famous tagline “Make Love Not War” as a forms to protest every kind of war and violence. This movement well known as their protest against U.S foreign policy towards Vietnam war. ( David Jr. M)

How ethnic and religion issues came to appear as a dilemma, The Case of Muslim Rohingya ethnic in Myanmar.

Culture is “that complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, arts, morals, law custom and any other capabilities and habits which acquired by man (both genders) as a member of society”

E.B. Tylor

Culture is the basic factor that can influence how people act and doing something around others. Almost every individual or groups of people have different culture in this world. Based on what Tylor stated, we know that culture is the accumulation of knowledge, beliefs (sometimes we called it as religion), arts morals, custom law, and so forth that manifested by man (male and female) during their social life. Those factors, if we really paying attention on it, is a very crucial matters. Every people have different perspectives when seeing or responding something. And if this diversity cannot be well understood by the people, the possibility of conflict among them will be so high. When we talks about culture, sometimes we were facing difficulties to differentiate ethnic and religion.

Those two things are like two different side of a coin. We cannot separated this because it is related each other. Sometimes when we discuss about ethnics about what, how, and why ethnics did such a thing but on the other hands, religion wills then entering the discussion. We cannot deny because sometimes religion is the basic factor of what and how an ethnic behavior. The diversity of culture is become more vulnerable to become a conflict when we talks in the wider environment called state. Talks about cultural diversity at state level, it is very crucial and we have to be careful to deal with this. Usually there are so many different ethnics group that exist in one states. Those ethnics group of course has their own objectives based on they own knowledge and beliefs, they have their own rules and regulation for its people and this will be adhered by the people every time and everywhere in interacting with others.  Imagine that each people in a state have this, if one ethnic is so different and not fit with another and then they interact each other. The possibility of misunderstood and conflict regarding this, is on eyes.

roghhh

Actually the ethnicity problem was occur long time ago. But, the most worried conflict happened two years ago in June 2012. The conflict is actually between Myanmar Government against Rohingya Muslim ethnic group as minority since 1947 that currently involving Buddhist Rakhine groups as another actors.  The Rohingya are a Muslim minority ethnically related to the Bengali people living in neighboring Bangladesh’s Chittagong District. They form 90 percent of the one million people living in the north of Rakhine State in Myanmar, which borders Bangladesh and includes the townships of Maungdaw, Buthidaung and Rathedaung. While residents in northern Rakhine State are predominantly Muslim, ethnic Rakhines – primarily Buddhist – are the majority of the state’s three million residents. Actually, some Rohingya have been in Myanmar for long long time ago while others arrived in recent times.

The problem here is the Burmese authorities (Government) at that time consider them as undocumented immigrants and do not recognize them as one of their citizens or as an ethnic group. Rohingya are de jure stateless and the resources of instability in the country. The rejection is supported by the Myanmar President, Mr. Thein Sein that said “Burma will take responsibility for its ethnic nationalities but it is not at all possible to recognize the illegal border-crossing Rohingyas who are not an ethnic [group] in Burma,” on the President’s office website. This conflict worsens when the Rakhine Buddhists involves in June 2012. Homes and places of worship razed. About thousands people were killed and displaced at that time (the majority is Muslim Rohingya). The term “ethnic cleansing” was popular at that time which declared by the Buddhist towards the Muslim Rohingya. Referring to the above case study, if we analyze it carefully, we will then find a dilemma that the conflict is purely because of ethnic differences or religious differences. If the conflict happened because of the ethnicity matters, like what the statement of Myanmar President, then why there is also a religious matter come up as the factor when Rakhine Buddhist involves and try to do ethnic cleansing towards Rohingya Muslim at that time. If the reason is religion differences, it is actually did not make sense because in Myanmar there are three Muslim ethnics which are Burmis muslim, Indian muslim, and Rohingya muslim. So, why then only Rohingya muslim become the only victims on the conflict then. This is the question that cannot be answered by all up to now indeed.

Culture and conflict are linked each other. However, this does not mean that the diversity of culture will always produce conflict. Conflict is a normal phenomenon of people interaction. Conflict can include segregation, discrimination, and exclusion. Whatever the root of the problem, In conflict resolution, tolerance and patience are key factors to prevent conflict. In the case of Myanmar, we see that sometimes culture (ethnic) and religion cannot be separated each other and closely linked. So, while we discussing or debating about ethnics conflict, sometimes the religion matters is came to appear as one of the factor of the conflict.

Source: http://www.irinnews.org/report/96801/briefing-myanmar-s-rohingya-crises

[Rizky Adi Yananto]

 

Ethiopian Culture ( Winda Ayu Pratiwi 016201200109)

Culture

Ethiopia has a diverse mix of ethnic and linguistic backgrounds. It is a country with more than 80 different ethnic groups each with its own language, culture, custom and tradition. One of the most significant areas of Ethiopian culture is its literature, which is represented predominantly by translations from ancient Greek and Hebrew religious texts into the ancient language Ge’ez, modern Amharic and Tigrigna languages.

Ge’ez is one of the most ancient languages in the world and is still used today by the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church. The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church has its own unique customs and traditions, which have been influenced by Judaism.

The Tigrayans’ history and culture is derived from the Aksumite Kingdom tradition and culture whereas the history and culture of the Amhara people is derived from the post Aksumite imperial reign of Menelik II and Haile Selassie.

Gender

In Ethiopia, men and women have clearly defined roles. Traditionally men are responsible for providing for the family and for dealing with family contact outside the home whereas women are responsible for domestic work and looking after the children.

Parents are stricter with their daughters than their sons; often parents give more freedom to males than females. The traditional view was men neither cook nor do shopping because housework tends to be women’s job. This view continues to be held in many areas of the country.

Although many people continue to follow these traditional roles, life is constantly evolving including the role of men and women. This can be seen particularly true in urban areas where women are beginning to take a major role in all areas of employment and men are beginning to take a greater role in domestic life.

Costume

The Ethiopian traditional costume is made of woven cotton. Ethiopian men and women wear this traditional costume called gabbi or Netella. Women often wear dresses (Kemis) and netella with borders of coloured embroidered woven crosses, but other designs are also used.

Other ethnic groups and tribes in the south and west of the country wear different costumes that reflect their own traditions. Some tribes partially cover their body with leather but others do not wear any clothes at all, merely decorating their faces and bodies with distinctive images.

Food

The Ethiopian national dish is called wat. It is a hot spicy stew accompanied by injera (traditional large spongy pancake made of teff flour and water). Teff is unique to the country and is grown on the Ethiopian highlands. There are many varieties of wat, e.g. chicken, beef, lamb, vegetables, lentils, and ground split peas stewed with hot spice called berbere.

Berbere is made of dried red hot pepper, herbs, spices, dried onions, dried garlic and salt ingredients. Wat is served by placing it on top of the injera which is served in a mesob (large basket tray). The food is eaten with fingers by tearing off a piece of injera and dipping it in the wat.

Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Christians do not eat meat and diary products (i.e. egg, butter, milk, and cheese) on Wednesdays and Fridays except the 50 days between Easter and Pentecost, the Fast of the Prophets, the fast of Nineveh, Lent, the Fast of the Apostles and the fast of the Holy Virgin Mary. According to the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church belief, the faithful must abstain from eating meat and diary products to attain forgiveness of sins committed during the year, and undergo a rigorous schedule of prayers and atonement.

Vegetarian meals such as lentils, ground split peas, grains, fruit, varieties of vegetable stew accompanied byinjera and/or bread are only eaten during fasting days. Meat and diary products are only eaten on feasting days i.e. Christmas, Epiphany, Easter and at all other times. Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Christians, Jews and Muslims do not eat pork as it forbidden by their religious beliefs.

Drink

The favourite drink of many Ethiopians is bunna (coffee). Bunna is drunk in Ethiopia in a unique and traditional way known as a “coffee ceremony“. First the coffee is roasted, then ground and placed in a Jebena (coffee pot) with boiling water. When ready it is then served to people in little cups, up to three times per ceremony.

Other locally produced beverages are tella and tej, which are served and drunk on major religious festivals, Saints Days and weddings. Tella and tej are also sold by numerous designated commercial houses all over the country.

Melting Pot VS Salad Bowl: An Illustration of Cultural Diversity in United States of America

Written By Muhammad Al Ikhlas

Melting Pot

Just a little walk in the city of New York or Chicago, for example, would make any foreigner realize the presence of people of various races walking down the street: probably Caucasians, blacks, Hispanics, African Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and so on. Or for another example, on school campuses in America, bo th the faculty and the student body are usually composed of people from a number of countries rather than only one. Almost anywhere in America, the possibility is encountering a mix of people. Thus, America is a land of plural races and ethnicities, with a multicultural context.

Indeed, the variety of ethnicities in America is often claimed to be the best mix in the world. Leonard Dinnerstein and David M. Reimers introduce their book, Ethnic Americans: A History of Immigration and Assimilation, by stating, “Never before – and in no other country – have as many varied ethnic groups congregated and amalgamated as they have in the United States” . With such reputation, here is exactly where the famous term “melting pot” arises. This conception has traditionally been perceived as the best expression to describe the multi-ethnicity of America. Its basic idea presents the whole nation as one large pot. Anyone who enters the United States is automatically thrown into this “pot” where, for the following years, a process of assimilation into the American belief systems is taken place. All the cultural aspects that one brings into are blended together, or melted, to form a new culture. The outcome of this massive procedure is the “melted” version of a culture, which is described as characteristically “American.” It is notable that in this assimilation, the identities of each original culture are extinguished to bring out a complete new mixture.

Along with this perspective, however, there is another expression that describes the diversity of people in America. It tends to be interpreted in the same way as the “melting pot,” but actually has a slightly different meaning with a different way of approaching and explaining American society. In comparison with the “melting pot” theory, there is the “salad bowl” theory. This idea demonstrates a complete separate perspective that the newcomers bring different cultures, where each of these cultures is kept as an essential part to make up the whole. Every distinctive culture or belief is considered to be one of the tastes or ingredients that contributes in forming the whole; therefore its original shape and characteristics are maintained.

Whether to apply the term “melting pot” or the term “salad bowl” to the American multi-ethnic conditions brings about a large discussion and controversy. In a way, both serve as an effective and successful metaphor, despite their slight difference. Anyone who is accustomed to an extremely homogeneous society would be simply astonished after recognizing many faces with different physical features in America, and might praise the country by employing those two terms in topic. The ideas of the “melting pot” and the “salad bowl” in America both connote somewhat of an ideal to many people and are often admired. Having a close look at the reality of the country, such as the existing ethnic segregation, the fact of the white population fleeing away from the minority poverty, and the trend of the minority group forming an enclave, however, one can see that the “melting pot” theory is merely a myth, and despite its long fame, it is rather more suitable to label America as a “salad bowl.” 
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